Forskningsrapporter

Förnybara resurser

Anslag ges till projekt som rör alla aspekter av skogsbruk, processer och produkter från skogsindustrin. Rapporter kan omfatta

• Förvaltning av skogar
• Skogsavverkning och virkesprodukter
• Sågteknik
• Pulping
• Pappersproduktion
• Produktion av biodrivmedel

Fluid Induced Cavitation to Improve Energy Efficiency in Disc Refiner for Paper Pulp Production - Application of Advanced Research Techniques

The overall aim of this study is to investigate and develop the fibrillation stage of the mechanical pulping process. Parallel projects, of which this study has been a part, have been focused on alternative fibrillation methods using only fluid induced cavitation. The unique aim of this specific study focuses on the disc refiner and seeks to understand how fluid induced cavitation can be used to improve the efficiency of the same. A combination of the findings could lead to an improved fibrilliation stage in mechanical pulping.

The aim of this project is to complete the following:

  • Determine an appropriate fiber model suitable for the study
  • Study behavior of fiber suspension flow through a venturi
  • Study caviation onset of fiber suspension flow in venturi
  • Study fiber suspension flow in a disc refiner
Datum
2016-08
Författare

ÅF-Industry; Anton Lundberg, Per Hamlin, Simon Ingelsten

Strength prediction of timber with a near infrared camera

The project goal was to determine whether near infrared (NIR) data from sawn timber surfaces could contribute to the prediction of the strength of the boards. To this end, in addition to NIR data, data that is conventionally used in sawmills to make strength estimates was collected, as well as reference data from mechanical testing. The data collected for each of the hundred 3600*150*45 mm3 spruce boards included the dimensions, weight, density, natural frequency, high definition NIR-scans of the 2 broad sides, RGB- and fiber angle scans of the 4 long sides, x-ray computed tomography scan of the whole volyme, destructive 4-point strength testing with local and global eleasticity moduli, and finally a qualititative evaluation of the fracture relative to knit positions.

The raw data represented approximately 1 Terabyte amd the processed and integrated database about 50 TB. The database in itself is an important project resultat, a valuable resource, and strong basis for continued research and development based on information that has so far not been evaluated and utlizied.

Wood features that impact strength, such as compression wood, were identifiable. Wood properties that are important strength indicators, such as natural frequency and density, could be predicted with multivariate models. Initial model testing also showed that a predicition of the  global elasticity modulus with multivariate models based on NIR spectral data yields approximately the same accuracy as industrial strength estimation through dynamic excitation. However, the NIR data used in the modeling were only averages across the whole board. Consequently, there is good potential for better prediction with more complex  variables that reflect the spatial variations in each board, e.g. around knots, which will be the subject of an eventual continuation project.

Datum
2016-06
Författare

SP; Gerhard Scheepers, Jörgen Olsson, Anders Lycken
Innventia; Sven-Olof Lundqvist, Thomas Grahn
L; Olle Hagman

Hydrothermal carbonization of pulp and paper mill effluent sludge

Hydrothermal carbonisation, HTC, which involves the biomass in a water solution and under high pressure, is a technique by which very moist biomass can be processed to a more valuable material.

The aim of this project was to experimentally investigate HTC treatment of different effluent sludge from the pulp and paper industry in Innventia's Parr-reactor. Sludge from two different mills (BS-M1 and BS-M2) has been evaluated. The first mill is a paper mill with thermomechanical pulping, the second is a market kraft pulp mill. The two mills were selected based on type of production (market pulp or paper), type of effluent treatment and type of sludge handling. The following issues have been studied:

  • Dewatering propertieis of the slurry before and after HTC treatment and effect on the heating value
  • NPE concentration in the original sludge, the filtrate and the filter cake
Datum
2016-05
Författare

Innventia; Mikael Ahlroth, Marta Bialik, Anna Jensen

Bark Biorefinery - upscaling processes and new materials year 2

The project has focused on getting a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark biorefinery to create demonstrators and also possibilities to upscale the fractionation processes. Moreover an important part has been the transfer of the obtained knowledge externally to the scientific community and the public.

Datum
2016-03
Författare

Monica Ek, Dongfang Li, Rosana Moriana Torro; KTH

Activation of the self defense of spruce and pine by the treatment of seeds and seedlings - an epigenetic and ecological approach

It is of great economic importance to forestry that each plant will survive the hard living conditions during the first period after planting in the fields, when they are particularly sensitive. One challenge for the seedings is to resist the pine weevils which can cause costly damage. We propose a new simple and environmentally friendly approach to strengthen young conifer seedings against pine weevil attacks. Treatment with the vitamin B3 (Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid) and jasmonic acid resulted in reduced pine weevil attacks in young spruce seedlings in the fields. Treatment has partly been at seeding stage and through watering the seedings in the greenhouses. No adverse effect on plants growth was observed before planting in the fields.

In order to develop new types of plant protection, it is important to learn more about how plant defense is organized. Part of our research was to investigate importance of epigenetic mechanisms to enhance the defense against various STRESS. In our studies, we saw fallen pine weevil attack the plants from seeds treated with a DNA methylation lowering substance (5-azacytidine), and lowered degree of DNA methylation in needles from nicotinamide seeds treated plants. These results pointing to a possible role of epigenetic mechanisms in the defense activation.

In the continued research, we have studied, among other things how the UV-B radiation can affect the overall defense establishment in plants and the importance the epigenetic mechanisms have in this processes, but also the role the Vitamin B3 plays in defense activations.

Datum
2016-03
Författare

Torkel Berglund, KTH

Seaweed Cultivation of pulp and paper mills for sustainable production of bio-oil

Results from this project show the possibilities to cultivate freshwater microalgae in pilot scale on site at pulp- and  paper mills for production of biobased oil to replace fossil oil. Outdorr Tethys ponds and one raceway pond was used for this purpose. The pilot site was located on land not suitable for other crops at the Nordic Paper Bäckhammar mill in southern Sweden.

Microalgae biomass was produced during 2013-15 using Scenedesmus dimorphus UTEX 417 as a starting culture in autotrophic growth tests. Local consortia developed during the cultivation seasons. Harvesting and drying of the biomass was performed once a year and lipids were extracted for analysis.

It was demonstrated that cultivation can be done sustainably by utilizing solar energy, waste heat and carbon dioxide from flue gas produced at the mill in a one-step procedure. The source of nutrients for the cultivation needs to be changed from commercial fertiilizer to waste water or manure produced locally and more research is needed in this area. There are possibilities to produce methane from the biomass.

The lipids content lay around 10-30% and during the best season 2014 the photosynthetic efficiency was 1.1%. It was calculated that the energy output from the biomass was 4 times larger than the energy needed for cultivation and that the productivity was 5 times as high per hectar compared to rapeseed cultivation in Sweden. Hydrothermal liquefaction was an interesting option to produce biocrude. The composition of the lipids were similar to biodiesel but razther viscous due to high  amounts of palmitic and stearic acids and therefore interesting for products lika lubrificants but not directly suitable as feed.

Datum
2016-01
Författare

Susanne Ekendahl, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden

Electrolysis of sodium sulphate - Efficient use of saltcake and ESP dust in pulp mills

The pulp mill of today is very efficient with low losses of chemicals and an effective chemical revocery system. The high degree of closure is positive for the mill economy, water consumption and environmental impact, but also brings negative aspects. In a closed system the Na/S balance and build-up of K and Cl in the mill process streams has to be controlled. The chemical balances are today normally controlled by purging ESP dust (or ESP dust treated to obtain a more concentrated purge) and compensating with make-up chemicals to maintain the Na/S ratio at the desired level. This is costly and leads to the release of salt to the environment.

One option to solve/minimize the above mentioned problem is electrolysis of sodium sulphate, either in the form of pre-treated ESP dust or saltcake from CIO2 production (more or less pure Na2SO4), to caustic and sulphuric acid. The current state-of-the-art, used extensively in the chlor-alkali industry, is a two compartment electrolyzer that produces pure caustic and a mix of H2SO4 and Na2SO4. This project aims to evaluate how electrolysis can be integrated in two model mills (a softwood market pulp kraft mill located in Scandinavia and a eucalyptus market pulp kraft mill located in South America. Effects on both Na/S and K/Cl levels were taken into account.

Datum
2015-12-11
Författare

ÅF-Industry; Ragnar Stare, Fredrik Öhman, Lennart Delin
Akzo Nobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals; Nina Simie, Kalle Pelin

 

Preparation and evaluation of plant fiber-based insulation material with an ultra-low density using av mechnaical foaming method

Energy consumption in buildings is about 15% in all the energy consumption, even higher in some developing countries. To reduce this part of energy consumption, extensive insulation material os used in the construction of house. Glass fiber (Isover Co.) and rock wool (RockWool Co.) are the most popular two types of insulation materials in nowadays market because of their good thermal and sound insulation, safety and convenience in use. However, they cannot give people a natural physhological comfortable feeling because their raw materials are from rocks. Plant fiber-based insulation material as an alternative product has potentially huge development space due to its plenty of raw materials, good physical and mechanical properties, and good environmental conservation.

Our work is different from other (such as Shuichi, HempFlax Co., Dieffenbacher Co. and so on) work in raw material types, equipment types, preparation method, properties and application of products. Recycled newspaper, cardboard from daily life, leftover material from wood mill, and straw and shell from agricultural residues can be used for a part of whole part of raw material to produce this material. This can realize the reuse of recycled and shorter fibers, thus avoid environment pollution and decrease the production cost. Not like conventional fiberboard, the manufacture process does not involve heat, press and toxic adhesives, thus no formaldehyde emission; nor like the production processes of rock wool and glass wool, in high-temp resistance consists of foaming device, mechanical stirrer and common drying oven. So the preparation process is simple and convenient.

A mechnical foaming method which is an innovative approach in production of insulation material made is employed to decrease the density of material and get the porous material with an ultra-low density. Si and A1 compounds are added into the foaming system as an inorganic filler to improve the fire resistance and mechanical strenght of the fiber, which is another novel thought in the preparation process. On account of Si-A1 compounds and waterproof agent, our products have better mechanical properties and water absorption that the products from others at the same density grade. They can be used not only as thermal and sound insulation materials in building, but also as buffering materials in package, lightweight panel in furniture manufacture, as well as adsorption material in liquid pollution.

 

Datum
2015-06
Författare

Olle Hagman Wood Science and Technology, Luleå University

Use of biomass produced by the waste material as a substrate for bioethanol production by yeast

In this project we have investigated the possible use of microalgal biomass as substrate in ethanol producing fermentations. For growth and ethanol production the fermenting microorganism (yeast) need sugars, which are today commonly provided from agricultural and forestry products but these have at some points disadvantages. Algal biomass have here been investigated as an alternativ sustainable bource of raw material sing; i) cultivations can be set up in places where food crops cannot grow thus not interfreing with food production of leading to increased deforestation, ii) most microalgae do not contain ligning and therefore pretreatment will result in low or no formation of inhibitors, iii) microalgal cultivations can contribute to environmental benefits by capturing carbon diozide from the flue gas and utilize nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal waste water, resultat in purification of such waste streams together with production of energy-rich biomass.

From the investigations made in this project it was seen that the algal biomass cultivated on waste material, flue gas and waste water, can be used to provide fermentable sugars as substrates in fermentation. The most promissing pretreatment method seemed to be weak acid hydrolysis in a thermal pretreatment process, which released up to 83% sugars of the total content of carbohydrates. Pretreatment did not lead to formation of the inhibitors furfural or HMF, which is a major issue when dealing with pretreatment of lignoscellulosic raw material. Variations in species composition of the microalgal community in the production plant was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) giving a finger print of the composition of the algal community. The T-RFLP analysis showed clear variations of specieis composition over cultivation season (May to October/November).

Datum
2013-12
Författare

Chalmers; Eva Albers

Optimization of suitable enzymes for the enzymatic pretreatment of chip energy efficient TMP tiilverkning

In order to evaluate the possibilities of using enzymes for pre-treating softwood chips in order to lower the energy demand in mechanical pulping impregnation and refining trials were performed using a set of different enzymes. In small scale impregnation and refining trials were performed using a set of different enzymes. In small scale impregnation trials it was shown that the enzymatic activity highly depended on the size, i.e. the amount of destruction of the chips with more disintegrated wood chips rendering a higher relase of sugars. Of the enzymes tested Pectinase and Xylanase resulted in the highest amoung of released sugars wihile Mannanase and Pectin lyase gave considerably lower sugar releases. In larger scale impregnation trials the treatment indicated that most of the sugar released occurred in the first 60 minustes and that acitivities thereafter seemed to level off.

Refining trials using a small Wing refiner on chips treated with Pectinase, Xylanase and Mannanase did not show any energy savings to a given freeness level. Comparing strenght properties the differences were small considering tensile index and light scatering where the Mannanase treated chops even showed a lower strength development as a function of energy input.

In conclusion it was appararent that wood chips, even after an Impressafiner treatment is too coarse for allowing enzymes to sufficiently break up the fibre-fibre boding allowing for lowering thge energy demands in mechanical pulping.

Datum
2013-12
Författare

Innventia; Lennart Salmén

Mass spectrometer for sensor development

In this report the effects of the grant approval, for the purchase of a new mass spectrometer equipment allowing direct analysis of the changes in composition of a well-defined gas matric occuring upon interaction with different gas sensor surfaces, on two different research projects are reported.

The mass spectrometer has been installed and connected to a system dedicated to the analyis of changes in different gas sensor properties when exposed to different gas sensor properties when exposed to different kinds of gases/gas matrices in order to allow studies on what changes to the gas composition occur upon interation with various sensor materials/surfaces and thereby the retrieval of information about  possible reactions that might happen on the senor surfaces during different ambient conditions. through the studies of such reactions for a selection of senor materials during SO2 exposure and comparison of the results to the results from sensor response measurements and theoretical modeling it has been possible to gain such knowledge about materials/processes during different conditions and sensor operation modes that a sensor module for SO2 monitoring has been developed that far that field measurements in a pilot plant have been possible to conduct.

Furthermore, with the help of extensive mass spectrometer measurements it has been possible to work out correlations between the response of field-effect based gas sensors and the identity and level of some different substances, cush substances, such as anmmonia, released from different particles upon heating. This has proved a great help in the project around development of sensors for the assessment of contents of small airborne particles and determine their toxicity.

Datum
2013-11
Författare

Linköpings Universitet; Mike Andersson

Development of model factory with optimal water balance for different operational scenarios / start / stop, and to compare this with a reference plant

Denna rapport belyser teniska och ekonomiska för- och nackdelar mot kampanjbaserad produktion av termomekanisk massa, TMP, för tillverkning av tidningspapper av standardkvalitet.

TMP och tidningspapper är kapital- och elenergiintensiva produkter, vars rörliga produktionskostnad till stor del beror av elpriset.

Med kampanjbaserad produktion eller kampanjkörning avses i den här rapporten att TMP-linjen upprepande körs med överproduktion en period för att i efterföljande period stoppas. Vanligen sker det inom dygnet med några timmars stoppad TMP-produktion.

Modellen i rapporten beskriver fyra driftfall, som visar hur energi- och vatttenbalanserna påverkas vid olika produktionsnivåer i TMP-linjerna och på pappersmaskinen. Resultaten är generella och relativt oberoende av om primärraffineringen sker med enkel- eller dubbeldiskraffinörer.

Produktionsstopp i TMP-linjerna ställer krav på att lagringskapaciteten för TMP är tillräcklig, att ångcentralen kan kompensera för bortfallet av återvunnen ånga och sekundärvärme samt att bakvattenöverskottet som uppstår på pappersmaskinen kan hanteras effektivt.

Rapporten visar att elkostnaden behöver vara relativt hög för att motsvara en vinstmarginal på 15%. Produktionsenheter som har relativt låg vinstmarginal och stor andel rörligt pris i sitt elavtal påverkas i större utsträckning av högt spotpris på el. Dessa enheter kan med produktionsekonomisk fördel anpassa produktionstakten, t.ex. genom kampnajkörningar.

Kampankörningar förutsätter att det finns outnyttjad kapacitet i TMP-produktionen, vilket per definition utgör en kaptialkostnad.

Rapporten belyser också alternativa möjligheter att sänka den specifika energikostnaden, t.ex. genom gott kapitalutnyttjande, hög produktionsverkningsgrad, god ång- och sekundärvärmeåtervinning och anpassade elavtal.

 

 

Datum
2012-12
Författare

ÅF-Industry; Tomas Söderlund

Biomass based plasticizers from liquefied waste paper

The overall aim of the project was to design and develop new environmentally friendly plasticizers from non-edible biobased products such as waste paper. During the project white writing paper and brown paper towels were liquefied by acis catalysed hydrolysis in the presence of ethylene glycol and glyceriol. The liquefaction efficiency was good for brown paper, but the pcocess did not work well in the case of  white paper. The liquefied products were characterized by NMR, ESI-MS, SEC and SEM and uses as monomers for synthesis of biobased plasticizers. A potential high volume application for these esters would be as plasticizers for poly(vinyl  chloride) (PVC). The synthesized plasticizers were, thus, blended with PVC by solution casting and the blends were characterized for their mechanical properties and miscibility by tensile testing, DSC and FTIR. The new plasticizers had similar or even better plasticizing efficiency compared to traditional diisooctyl phthalate plasticizer. Novel bio-based plasticizers with high environmental and economic potential were, thus, successfully designed from non-edible liquefied biomass.

Datum
2012-12
Författare

Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan; Minna Hakkarainen, Nina Aminlashgari, Bo Yin

Age of granitoid intrusions, hosting copper and gold mineralisation, Skellefte District, Northern Sweden

The Skellefte district, northern Sweden, is known for its many c. 1.89 Ga volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits. It is, however, less known that the northern part of the district hosts different style of intrusion hosted Au±Cu±Mo±Au deposits, situated in the Palaeoproterozoic Jörn Granitoid Complex (JGC). The deposits are spatially related to quartz-feldspar porphyric dykes, which intruded pre to syn-mineralisation. The relationships between the different deposit styles are unknown, and in this study we aim to study the age and temporal relationships of the host rocks of the intrusive hosted deposits. Zircon U-Pb ages have been obtained from one alteration and mine different host rocks, of which three are plutonic rocks from the JGC and seven are from quartz-feldspar porphyritic (QFP) dykes and intrusions crosscutting the JGC. The three intrusive rocks are from the southern part, while the QFP dykes are from the southern (five samples), western (one sample) and from the northwestern (one sample) part of the JGC.

U-Pb ages of zircons have been obtained at the NORDSIM facility, Museum of Natural History in Stockholm, and plotted in U-Pb concordia diagrams. The radiometric ages for the plutonic rocks are c. 1887 Ma while the QFP dykes formed through recycling of c. 1886 Ma old crust and intruded at c. 1877 Ma throughout the study area.

Datum
2011-12-15
Författare

Therese Bejgarn

Efficiency of techniques for purification of condensate from wood dryers

Previous studies have showed that dryer condensate from steam dryhing of sawdust is toxic to aquatic organisms and that this toxicity correlates with high levels of organic compounds. Drying of sawdust for the production of fuel pellets is increasing due to the transition to renewable fuels. Recirculation of the drying medium reduces both emissions to air and energy consumption, but creates a liquid condensate containing organic compounds. Authorities have in several cases prescribed sand filtration as a purification technique for biomass dryer condensate. An alternative treatment method is biodegradation using adapted microorganisms found in biological treatment plants of pulp mills. This study investigated the effectiviness of sand filtration regarding toxicity, bioaccumulation and biodegradability; and the effect of dryer condensate on pulp mill wastewater microorganism. A condensate produced from spruce in a steam dryer under atmospheric pressure was treated efficiently. Toxicity was extremely high before filtration, medium after filtration through a new filter, and almost low when the filter had been in use for two months. Bioaccumulation potential decreased after filtration, and the filter kept its efficiency over time. Readily biodegradable organics were present in lower amounts after filtration. Regarding COD, the sand filter exceeded the efficiency of a MGA-filter. BOD decreased from 250 to about 40 mg/l. The microorganisms had a similar oxygen uptake rate in condensate as in water. The results show that filtration through sand makes a significant difference and that it is also possible to treat the condensate by rerouting it to a pulp mill biological treatment plant. A condensate produced from forest residue wood chops in an industrial steam dryer at 3 bars was studied regarding the efficiency of sand filtration and found to be less treatable; while there was initially an effect on COD and pH, it deteriorated rapidly and then the condensate was almot unaffected by filtration. Thus the feasiblity of sand filtration differs considerably for different biomass dryer condensates.

Datum
2011-12
Författare

Karlstads Universitet; Karin Granström, Alina Hagelqvist, Maria Sandberg

Air Dynamics in-situ studies of drying and thermal modification of wood with non-destructive method

The aim of this project was to study the moisture dynamics during the wood drying in the capillary phase. Also, the purpose was to examine an advanced image-processing algorithm for moisture content calculation, in order to use this algorithm for analysing moisture loss data for low and high temperature drying. Furthermore, the aim of this study was to use the CT-scanning technique during heat treatment of wood in order to investigate whether it is possible to detect internal checking in situ during the treatment. The results show that the algorithm for the dry weight moisture content on density data from the CT-scanning, during low- and high temperature drying in the climate chamber, is a powerful internal checking in situ during the heat treatment of wood. Furthermore, it is also possible to detect the phase of the heat treatment process in which the internal checking occurs. The CT-scanner together with the climate chamber gives an unique opportunity to improve the process schedules so that a high quality product is achieved.

Datum
2011-12
Författare

Luleå Tekniska Universitet; Lars Hansson

F & D activities around LignoBoost after the FRAM progra

The Swedish forest industry has limited experience of alternative fuels for the lime kiln, such as lignin. Therefore, there is a worry for negative effects on the operation of the kiln when alternative fuels are used. New fuels with differnt flame characteristics can give changes temperature profiles in the kiln, which in turn can have effects on for example availability and production capacity. A model that can predict the combustion characteristics of the fuel and its impact on the lime kiln can be an important tool to study the consequences of changing fuel type. The present study summarizes experiences and ID-simulations of oxygen enrichment of lime kilns, as a method of increasing capacity when new fuels are introduced, as well as results from the continued development of a 3D-CFD model for lime kilns.

Available data concering oxygen enrichment of lime kilns shows that the technique is establied and has been in operation in a large number of kilns, both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industy. Capacity increaes up to 30% and reductions in specific fuel consumption up to 30% have been reported.   

The results from the ID-simulations show that oxygen enrichment is an effective method to increase production capacity of a lime kiln (up to 12% at 22% oxygen in the combustion air) and at the same time lower the specific fuel consumption. This can be explained by the better heat transfer in particular in the area around the shorter and warmer flame that resultrs from oxygen enrichment. Accoring to the ID-simulations the higher flame temperature also gives a higher shell temperature which can affect the durability of the refractory.

Datum
2011-12
Författare

ÅF-Industry; Hans Norrström

Biomass based plasticizers from liquefied waste paper

The overall aim of the project was to design and develop new environmentally friendly plasticizers from non-edible biobased products such as waste paper. During the project white writing paper and brown paper towels were liquefied by acid catalysed hydrolysis in the presence of ethylene glycol and glycerol. The liquefaction efficiency was good for brown paper, but the process did not work well in the case of white paper. The liquefied products were characterized by NMR, ESI-MS, SEC and SEM and used as monomers for synthesis of biobased plasticizers. A potential high volume application for these esters would be as plasticizers for poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC). The synthesized plasticizers were, thus, blended with PVC by solution casting and the blends were characterized for their mechanical propertiess anand miscibility by tensile testing. DSC and FTIR. The new plasticizers had similar or even better plasticizing efficency compared to traditional diisooctyl phthalate plasticizer. Novel bio-based plasticizers with high environmental and economic potential were, thus, successfuylly designed from non-edible liquefied biomass.

Datum
2011-07
Författare

Minna Hakkarainen
Nina Aminlashgari
Bo Yin

Energy consumption in the pulp and paper industry -Model mills 2010

The purpose of this study is to update the hypothetical reference mills developed in the 2005 FRAM project to reflect the technical changes that have occured in recent years. The main empahasis in this study is on the technical changes which have affected energy consumption and production.
There was no eucalyptus kraft pulp mill in the FRAM project, but such a mill has been included in this study.

Datum
2011-01-20
Författare

Lennart Delin m.fl.

Hur egenkonvektion mellan glasen påverkar ett fönsters U-värde

The report aims to highlight how current issues surrounding the heat flow through windows is calculated and simulated.

The focus has been on how convection can affect the U-value (heat transfer coefficient).

Since the energy transport is linked together the report have also looked at the g-value (solar factor).

The report presents and discusses a number of computional programs.

They handle the energy transport in various ways, mainly because the programs have different uses.

The aim has been to look into these programs and show how they connect to different standards.

The report is addressed to people who work with energy calculations, but are not sure how windows should be handled in the calculations.

The pros and cons of the different ways to approximate the heat flow through windows is discussed.

Datum
2010-11-10
Författare

Anna Werner

Hydrogen storage for new environmentally clean car engines

None of existing materials satisfy to parameters required for efficient hydrogen storage on-board of hydro-driven vehicles. One of the most promising types of materials for hydrogen storage application is Metal Organic Framework Materials (MOF's).

Hundreds of MOF's are synthesized every year in various laboratories; systematic study of their hydrogen adsorption properties is rather important. Search for new MOF's and for methods to modify their structure for increased adsorption is one of the main priorities of our research. /p>

One of the methods reported in literature is doping MOF's with catalytic metal particles which according to some studies results in 5-8 fold increase of hydrogen adsorption by so called "spillover mechanism". Spillover suggests dissociation of molecular hydrogen on metal particles and migration of atomic hydrogen to carbon and then to MOF material.

Within current project we studied hydrogen storage parameters of MOF-5 material doped by metal catalyst according to published methods. However, we did not observed any signs of "spillover effect" in our experiments. Similar results are simultaneously published by one more group which is co-authored worlds known expert in physisorption of hydrogen by high surface area materials.

There is ongoing discussion on possible reasons for contradictory results from different groups.  At the same time the reserach activity is focused also on synthesis of new hydrogen storage materials based on carbon. New methods for synthesis of nanocarbons using various organic precursors and fullerenes are developed.

Finally, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of fullerenes aimed on reversible hydrogen chemisorption and release is studied.

Datum
2010-11-10
Författare

Alexandr Talyzin

Optimization of paper to paper friction using different adhesion pairs

Different mechanisms of friction were investigated for board coated with different coating colours. Measurements of friction were combined with contact angel measurements and with measurements of gloss and gloss variation before and after friction.

No significant relationships between chemical adhesion and friction could be observed at normal binder levels. Gloss and gloss variations increased due to polishing during measurements of friction. Polishing could also be observed for the samples that had been calandered at room temperature, while the samples calendered at increased temperature showed very low increases in gloss and gloss variations. These samples were probably too smooth on a sub-micron scale to be able to polish each otheh during measurements of friction.

A paradox was that the samples with a high latex content showed small increaes in gloss variations, despite the fact thet they showed the highest frictional forces. The high frictional forces were probably due to high adhesive forces.

The coated board was then printed and subjected to controlled abrasion during vibration tests to simulate wear during transport. Abraison was divided into three classes: scratches, polishing and removed ink. Samples with a high amount of asperities on a particle size scale, i.e. ~0.5 µm, showed a high amount of scratches. These scratches were gradually replaced by abrasion by polishing when these asperities were smoothened out by high temperature calendaring. Removed paint was mainly observed for samples coated with only latex. This was probably due to a low adhesion of the printing ink to the non-porous surface.

Datum
2010-11
Författare

Innventia; Peter Rättö

Effekter av ytterligare reningssteg vid skogsindustrier

This study considers application of tertiary treatment of effluent water in two Swedish pulp mills in a holistic perspective. Calculations of improved waste water quality and costs for membrane filtration, chemical treatment *precipitation@ and sand filtration have been performed. The results differ considerably between the two plants as well as between treatment methods. Generally, nutrient discharges decrese more with chemical treatment than in other methods, while suspended solids are more effectively removed with filtration. Sand filtration is less expensive to install and operate than the other two methods.

The recipient to one of the mills is a large lake in central Sweden, while the other mill is located in a coastal area by the Bothnian Bay. Both recipients exhibit fairly good ecological status and the amounts of organic material and nutrients discharged by the mills are small compared to background loads. Simulations show no significant effects in the recipients of tertiary treatment of the pulp mill effluents. On the positive side, however, is the recipients of tertiary treatment load on the environment of some substances. Against this should be considered the environmental effects of building and operating the treatment plants.

Our analysis of the combined environmental effects of the different treatment methods show that the total nutrient emissions decrease in all cases. In all other categories the environmental impact increases due to i.a. increased consumption of energy and chemicals during building and operating the treatment plants and due to increased sludge production. There is no established way of comparing different categories of environmental impact, but we have applied different methods to assess and normalize different environmental impacts. Numerical results from the different categories can be normalized against total emissions per year and per peson in a certain region, or can be normalized against politically established emission targets in different categories. This gives an indication about how much of the ”available space” in a sustainable society that is consumed by the impacts. The monetary value of increased CO2 emissions can also be estimated using abatement costs in other instances or using the price in emissions trading markets. In similar ways the monetary value of decreased nutrient emissions can be assessed and compared against the increased climate impact from the treatment plats.

In summary the results indicate that the environmental benefit of tertiary treatment in the pulp mills is ambiguous in a holistic perspective. None of the methods to compare different impact categories in this study definitely answers the question whether the benefit exceeds the costs. One reason for this is that primary and secondary treatment of the effluent waters are already installed in the mills and the present environmental impact is limited. There is also lack of data concerning the effect on potentially toxic substances by the tertiary treatment, which is a significant gap in the environmental balance account.

Datum
2010-11
Författare

Mikael Malmaeus
Mats Almemark
Magnus Karlsson
Olle Simon
Åsa Sivard
Tomas Ericsson

Application of ultrasound for impregnation and development of novel properties of spruce timber

The objectives of the project were to study some novel application of high frequency treatments and their effect on chemistry, structure and properties of Norway spruce wood. The project was focused on:

  • Improved permeability of Norway spruce wood by high frequency treatments:
  • Study the impact of treatments on structure and properties of wood to select the optimal treatment parameters with regards to specific processing afterwards;
  • Comprehensively study the chemistry, anatomy, physical-mechanical properties of the treated spruce wood;
  • Perform impregnation, laboratory and field standard decay tests to assess durability of treated and impregnated spruce wood.
Datum
2010-11
Författare

Nasko Terziev

Hur kan resonansfenomen utnyttjas för att minska energiförbrukningen vid framställning av papper?

Making paper with reasonable properties is a complex procedure that evolved over several centuries. At today mekmassaprocess exposed wood chips and fiber to mechanical load in several steps under the influence of water, water vapor and chemicals. The issue for this project is how resnonansfenomen can be used for energy efficiency of the process and improve fiber quality. The point is that the resonance can be used to concentrate the energy to frequency ranges that relate to the chip and fiber egenfrekrevenser and to monitor and control the cavitation. The initial analysis focused on both "lågfrekvensraffinering" focusing on the degradation of the chip and exposing the fiber, and "High frequency raffiniering", ie focus on fibrillation in the ultrasonic range.

Datum
2010-08-24
Författare

Lars-Olof Landström

Förstudie gällande styrsystem för belysning

One of the largest electrical consumers in buildings today is lighting, it is not uncommon that 30-45% of the energy use is due to lighting. There are ways of lowering energy use by choosing efficient light sources and fixtures, but the best way is by only using light when it's needed and in the correct amount. This is possible bu using a lighting control system.

This pilot study has been aimed at mapping out the different types of systems available together with establishing contracts both with researchers and with manufacturing parties. All, to build a base for a continued study, where collaborations between all identified parties can be arranged. Within these collaborations they can partake towards reaching less energy consuming buildings.

Investigations on by which means governing authorities are enforcing less energy consuming buildings have been conducted. Relevant standards have been brought to light and discussed around. Furthermore the most common control systems available today are summarized in this report.

The results of this report will be condensed ino a petition for a grand for continued research within the field.

Datum
2010-07-05
Författare

Daniel Strömberg

Fönster - tillgång och problem

This report gives an overview of some current research on windows and window related products from an energy perspective.

It includes a brief summary of what the U-value of a window is and why it is the only value that decides why a product gets an A (as in very energy efficient) or a lower degree (B - G) in the new embryo of Swedish energy standard for windows.

The report includes a brief discussion on the difference between the theoretical U-value that window makers use to label their products and the actual U-value, which depends on climatic conditions and the orientation of the window.

During previous decades (such as the 1980's, and 1990's) intensive worldwide research improved the energy performance of glazing constructions, especially as to give the window a better insulation (lower U-value).

This lead to windows with such low U-value that sometimes external water condensation appears on modern windows. In this report this phenomenon and how to "solve the problem" is briefly discussed. As for solar shading, the glazing producers can not yet deliver the perfect solution. Therefore, a lot of research today is made on solar shading installations and how to measure their energy performance. This is also mentioned in this report.

Since there is a tendency among architects nowadays to create buildings with one or two glazed skins, the report includes an introduction of what kinds of glazed skins exist. Active glazing constructions, such as electro chromic windows, are also touched upon.

Datum
2008-06-13
Författare

Anna Werner
Lise-Lott Larsson

Process Chemistry simulation in Extend based programs, CheMac, FlowMac and KraftMac

1   Background
With funding from ÅForsk, ÅF and VTT have co-operated in developing a new simulation architecture, where features of ChemSheet are used within CheMac, an Extend based program like FlowMac and KraftMac. The result is a new simulation tool that that will improve the performance of ÅF’s other Extend based simulation programs, FlowMac and KraftMac.
2   Aims of the project
The purpose of this R&D project was to develop a new simulation tool, in which pH and solubility of a number of key substances in pulping and paper-making processes could be calculated by combining the features of ChemSheet to process simulation performed with CheMac. The ultimate aim is to integrate CheMac with FlowMac and KraftMac.
The aims of the project were as follows:
-   A separate PC calculation tool for pH and solubility in pulp suspensions.
-   Data interchange between CheMac and pH calculation (spreadsheet or ASCII).
-   Integrated pH-calculation in CheMac.
-   Integrated solubility calculation in CheMac with the development of basic thermodynamic data files to describe the chemical composition of pulp suspensions in pulping and papermaking.
2.   Achievements in the development work
The simulation tool developed combines the existing features of ChemSheet/ChemApp thermodynamic equilibrium calculation and flowsheet calculation by CheMac. To achieve that a completely new set of Blocks was developed and collected in a CheMac library. The Blocks in the CheMac library are then further combined and used in simulation models.
The ultimate aim is to later integrate CheMac with FlowMac and KraftMac. Blocks have been built to convert CheMac flows and data to FlowMac and vice versa, but the testing of these blocks are not done yet.

2.1  CheMac Library
The CheMac library developed, built on the Extend platform, is based on the thermodynamic chemistry database ChemAPP. The target has been to construct the pulp and paper making unit models with chemistry calculation.
CheMac uses a thermodynamic calculator for calculating equilibrium between vapour, water and fiber water phases. It also includes dissolution/precipitation of solid phases. Thermodynamic routines are in a separate dynamic link library (DLL) that is called from Extend models.
The following Blocks have been developed in the project;

a)  Block used to initialize the thermodynamic system.
b)  Blocks used for various processes such as:
·        Mixer
·        Splitter
·        Washer
·        A Stage (acid stage)
·        D Stage (ClO2 bleaching stage)

c) Blocks used for defining various feed flows such as:
·        Pulp feed
·        Water feed
·        Gas feed

d) Blocks used to convert flows between FlowMac and CheMac:
·        FlowMac to CheMac
·        CheMac to FlowMac

2.2    CheMac Flowsheet
By combining and connecting several mixer and splitter blocks, the blocks described in section 2.1, different mill processes such as bleaching and washing can be simulated and predictions of washer and bleaching operations and performances are possible to simulate.

3. Connection with ABLE R&D co-operation
In the CheMac project, VTT PRO and ÅF are project partners in "Advanced Bleaching Plant" (ABLE) - research project. In the ABLE project, program modules for bleaching chemistry have been developed. However, since the development of ABLE modules is not finalised, the inclusion of bleaching chemistry modules into CheMac and hence FlowMac/KraftMac has not been fully implemented.

4. IPR, Intellectual Property Rights
The thermochemical calculation tool based on Chem Sheet, is customised for ÅF. The integrated calculation tool is best developed by using the library ChemApp (by GTT-Technologies, Aachen Germany) which is coupled to a modified interface, allowing it to be used together with FlowMac in the future. VTT has provided the calculation moedel as DLL library which utilizes the subset of ChemApp database (Eqfiber). This is developed to a ModChem DLL library, developed for ÅF as a customized application, for use of ÅF (and not to be sold as retail software product). Both parties have agreed and signed a research contract, which defines the mutual intellectual property rights (IPR) involved in this development work.

Datum
2007-12-17
Författare

Anders Törngren
Meeri Puukko

Storage of Norway spruce and Lodgepole pine saw logs - wood and run-off quality during storage with and without sprinkling of logs with and without bark

The results from the 10 weeks storage experiment showed that storage of logs without bark is a good alternative to the traditional storage of logs with bark. The wood quality of both spruce and pine logs, with and without bark, remained quite good during the storage. After 10 weeks of storage, the largest cracks could be found in dry stored spruce logs without bark while the dry stored pine was most infested with blue stain. After the more normal storage time of three weeks the damages were limited. Sprinkling effectively protected the stored logs from wood damages. The run-off from logs without bark, for both spruce and pine, showed lower concentrations of organic material and phenols as well as higher pH compared to run-off from logs with bark. On the other hand the concentrations of phosphorus seemed to be increased in run-off from logs without bark. Since the wood quality was mainly preserved and the run-off for most analysed substances was cleaner when storing logs without bark the method has environmental advantages.

Datum
2007-12
Författare

Maria Jonsson

A Summary - Ethanol production from wood in Sweden

The study analysis prerequisites for ethanol production from wood in Sweden with concern to market issues, production methods, raw material supply and current usage of requested raw material assortments.

From a Swedish perspective, cereals, sugar beet and several cellulosecontaining materials as straw, energy forest and wood are possible raw materials. At an early stage, Swedish research focused on wood, with branches and tops, as the primary resource for ethanol production. The R&D has so far only tested purer materials as wood chips and saw dust. Research progress within fermentation of pentose sugars, minimising water flows, optimising byproduct usage and integration concepts are also needed before large scale plants can be built.

The raw material competition is increasingly fierce with several sectors (pulp and paper, energy, saw mill, board producers and biofuel) competing for wood raw material. Our analysis indicates a raw material potential of 5 TWh (branches and tops) could be available for ethanol production under two conditions; an increased take-out of forest residues and usage of new raw material assortments from agriculture and forest. 5 TWh raw material corresponds to approximately 350 000 m3 ethanol. The EU biofuel directive recommends a substitution of fossil vehicle fuels of 5,75% and 10% 2010 respectively 2020. If these figures where to correspond to ethanol, 760 000 respectively 1 400 000 m3 ethanol will be needed. Thus, wood raw material cannot fully substitute fossil fuels without using assortments already used by other sectors.

Today, Swedish ethanol production (wheat) is expensive in comparison to production based on other raw materials as sugar cane or molasses. The reasons are lower cost for raw material and labour. Today, the custom duty on ethanol from countries outside is a condition for profitability of Swedish production. The Swedish government are currently working to annull the duty, which if succeded, will cause great difficulties for Swedish ethanol producers as the competition with imported ethanol from South America or Asia will be fierce. This situation may however change if the demand and price level continue to rise.

Datum
2007
Författare

Emma Gunnarsson

Improved secondary heat systems and reduced water consumption within the pulp and paper industry

The study presents process and cooling water consumption for some of the main products in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. Different process closure concepts and technology have been reviewed. Specifically increased bleach plant closure including effects on non-process elements (NPEs) has been simulated in computer models.

A structuralized and hands-on method for analysing cooling and secondary heat has been established within the study. A number of the typical measures for increasing secondary heat recovery and increasing the utilization are described. An optimized sizing principle of heat recovery units and coolers is described.

Datum
Författare

Magnus Forslund, Marta Bialik, Karin Lindgren och Åsa Samuelsson

 

 

 

Bark Biorefinery 2013-2015

The present project has focused on getting a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark biorefinery to create demonstrators and also possibilities to upscale the fractionation processes. Moreover, an importat part has been the transfer of the obtained knowledge externally to the scientific community and the public. The project has resulted in new methods for isolation and charaterization of bark compounds such as polysaccharides, pectins, suberin and epoxy fatty acids as well as cellulose nanocrystals from bark. The bark compunds have successfully been used in material demonstrators such as barrier films with excellent results.

The promising results have led to that the next step towards up-scaling has been taken for the isolation of suberin and expocy fatty acids. Contacts have been established with the parallel Wood Wisdom project Wobama and Grease to obtain crude material to upgrade. New contacts with industrial partners considering upscaling of the bark biorefinery have also been established.

Datum
Författare

KTH Royal Institute of Technology: Monica Ek, Myriam Le Normand, Dongfang Li, Åke Rasmusson

First study on the use of biopellets between microalgae and fungi for removal of emerging pollutants in water

The aim of the present project was to investigate the potential of biopellets composed of microalgaes (Chlorella vulgaris) and fungi (Aspergillys niger) for removal of emerging pollutants (pharmaceutical substances), heavy metals (cadmium) and pesticides, present at concentrations that can be exprected in aquatic environments. At the applied concentration of biopellets (initial 75 mg dry weight L-1) in the present study, biopellets had no significant effect compared to control treatment (no microorganisms) on the majority of pharmaceutical substances. However, for ranitidine, biopellets showed significantly higher removal compared to no treatment or using only C. vulgaris. Considering the low mass of biopellets used for treatment in the present study (500-fold lower than biomass used in activated sludge processes in municipal wastewater treatment) the significant effect on ranitidine indicated that further is meeded to ivnestigate effects of the biopellets at higher biomass concentrations than those used in the present study. For removal of cadmium from water, biopellets were not more effective than using C. vulagris or A. niger separately as treatment, but all microorganisms performed significantly better than control treatments (no organisms). Out of 38 pesticides tested, water treatment with biopellets resulted in significantly lower final concenetrations (after treatment) for 42% of the tested pesticide compared no treatment (control) or treatment with microalgae or fungi. Also, another key aspect of the biopellets is that they are superior to use within a water treatment process based on microalgae. This is because they can assist in easy harvest of microalgae, which currenty is costly and unsustainable.

Datum
Författare

Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet
Hristina Brodin, Atlasi Daneshvar, Meritxell Gros Calvo, Malin Hultberg