Forskningsrapporter

Miljö

Anslag ges till bl.a. studier av miljöförändringar såväl som metoder för att förbättra lokala, regionala eller globala miljöförhållanden. Rapporterna kan omfatta ämnen,

• Miljöutbildning
• Hantering av miljö
• Luftföroreningar
• Vattenförorening
• Buller
• Hållbar utveckling

Environmentally benign all-wood biocomposites

Here we want to utlize commercial mechanical pulps to cost-efficiently produce new weed "fibres" suitable to use in composite applications without addition of petroleum based resins and matrix materials. This will allow for completely new product areas for composite materials from all renewable resources. The lessons learnt from our proposed projecct will also lead to more efficient use and production of conventional thermomechnical pulp (TMMP) and chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP). Noatbly and important, the removal of petroleum-based materials will gain significant energy savings and is environmentally friendly.

Datum
2016-08
Författare

Mittuniversitetet; Armando Córdova

Properly designed packaging reduces consumer food waste and facilitate recycling

The environmental impact of packing is usually assessed by its direct environmental impacts that include material, manufacturing and recycling. The indirect environmental impact of packaging is seldom discussed even though research has shown that this can be much more important than the direct impact. One of the main indirect aspects is the package's ability to protect the content and make sure that all content can be used. This is especially true for food products with high environmental impact.

Some indirect impact depends on human behaviour. In this project, we wanted to understand packaging attributes that affect whether households' material recycle packaging or throw them in the waste for energy recovery. We have also calculated for the indirect aspects in a comparison of two different packaging, solutions for minced meat.

The first study was conducted by making interviews with ten households, Included was their attitudes to recycling, organisation of in-house system and questions about various combinations of products and packaging attributes that influence their decisions to separate or not. Generally, the decision to separate or not, to a large extent depend on a balance between working effort and environmental benefits.

Datum
2016-04
Författare

Helén Williams; Karlstads Universitet

Chip for portable environmental analysis by high pressure

The project concludes a project series that has explored the possibility to realize a miniaturized system, a small chip, for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chip should comprise all necessary components for HPLC, namely integrated high-pressure pumps, column, and detection. The targeted application is a portable instrument for easier and faster analysis of pollutants in water samples directly in the fielt. The key to success is believed to be the miniaturized high-pressure pumps developed by our research group at the Division of Microsystems Technology. The driving principle of the pumps is the large and relatively incompressible volume expansion of paraffin when melted by integrated heaters. A preceding projetct showed that a new fabrication process was necessary for better pressure capacbility and reliability of the chop. Therefore, this project aimed to develop new fabrication processes for the chip. The results were two new fabrication processes for stainless steel and glass. With then new fabrication process for glass chips, this project was also able to present a design for a chip with a column in direct connection with an integrated, ultra-low volume flow cell for photospectrometry for detection of sample analytes. In conclusion, this project series has treated all parts of a miniaturized HPLC-instrument and shows a possbile approach for realizing such a system.

Datum
2016-02
Författare

Roger Bodén, Uppsala University

Environmental Implications of Dietary Choices in Sweden

In recent years, a growing interest from consumers to know the origins and contents of foods has put alternative choices such as organic foods and dietary changes in the agenda. Dietary choices are important to address as many studies find that activities related to food production account for nearly 20-30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Nonetheless, while GHG emissions are important often other environmental impact categories are not used to assess the sustainability of different foods, diets and choices. This study therefore aims to understand the implications of dietary choices for Swedish food consumption on a broad range of environmental impact categories to provide insight into the impacts associated with certain food products and dietary choices.

The study reviews dietary choices based on Swedish consumption statistics and assesses the implications using a number of scenarios. These include scenarios related to increasing organic and regional food consumption in addition to reducing meat, vegetarian diets and eating based on nutritional guidelines. Life cycle methodology is used to review environmental impacts of Swedishs food consumption (from both domestic and imported products) in the year 2015 and 2020.

Increasing Swedish food production may lead to lower impacts for all impact categories by reducing imports, although limitations in growing season and availability of foods in Sweden allows only for minor increases. The results also indicate that large reductions in nearly all environmental impact categories are possible by reducing meat consumption, both incrementally and through vegetarian diets. Nonetheless, an increase in vegetable and fruit products may lead to a potential increase in human and ecosystem toxicity. Simular results are found for diets based on nutritional guidelines, as these guidelines call for an increase in vegetables and fruits and a reduction in meat consumption. An increase in organic foods showed only minor climate impact reductions, although toxicity potential was reduced significantly. Organic foods may also lead to a reduction in bioversity damage potential, although they may also increase acidification, eutrophication and land use if all food was produced organically.

The report does not outline the "best" choices, but provides a broader environmental sustainability assessment of food consumption. As there is no standard to assess the sustainability of food products from a broader range of sustainability indicators, it may be up to consumers to makes choices based on their own values. The report also outlines and reflects upon the potential to increase and decrease the consumption of certain food products. In addition important improvements to life cycle assessment method and data availability are provided in order to provide more transparency in future work on consumption studies in Sweden. 

Datum
2016-02
Författare

Michael Martin, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet

Chip for portable environmental analysis by high pressure

This project is part of an effort to  realize a miniaturized system, a small chip, for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The targeted application is a portable instrument for easier and faster analysis of pollutants in water samples directly in the field. The key to success is believed to be the miniaturized high-pressure pumps developed by our reseaerch group at the Division of Microsystems Technology, Uppsala University. The driving principle of the pumps is the large and relatively incompressible volume expansion of paraffin when melted by integrated heaters. The project aimed to study tempeature control of the chip and integration of a detector. Temperature control was achieved  by integration of thermoresistive sensors at significant sites on the chip. The chosen detector type was UV/VIS spectrophotometry, since it is a versatile detector type and available in a truly portable format. The strategy for integration of the detector was to integrate a miniaturized flow cell with a minimal flow volume with optical fibers leading in from a portable light source and out to a spectrophomometer. However, due to problems with the fabrication process, it was not possible to fabricate the integrated flow cell. Instead, a study of new effective heaters for the pumps was added to the project. The study was performed together with researchers at Stanford University. The new heaters showed a more than tenfold increase in speed of both hearing and cooling of the paraffin, resulting in faster pumps with better response time. In conclusion, this project has added value information for how to achieve good temperature control in a complete, fully integrated HPLC-chip.

Datum
2015-12-14
Författare

Uppsala Universitet; Roger Bodén

3D Analysis of strains in fiber reinforced composites using X-ray micro tomography and volume correlation

In the present project X-ray micro tomography has been used with in-situ loading of carbon fiber reinforced composites. The volume images produced have been used for subsequent volume correlation for determination of displacements and strains.

A methodology has been developed that includes suitable settings for reconstruction of volume images from the tomography scans for subsequent correlation analysis as well as tensile testing using a developed tensile stage for application of load during tomography.

The project shows the possibilities in using in-situ tensile testing during tomography to study the mechanical behavior of different materials. There are challenges in the analysis and e.g. creating volume images of the material studied for volume correlation studies sets other demands than if the images should be used for pure imaging of a product.

The methodologoy developed in the propject is applicable to various types of materials, bu the materials suitability should be assessed by the materials inherent density differences since these differences give rise to the pattern that is required for correlation analysis. A material should have a random distribution of particles of lower or higher density than the surrounding matrix. These particles should also be of a size which allows to be repeatedly resolved by the tomograph to be used.

Displacements and strains are possible to determine for the studied materials with fairly good resultats using the suggested techniques.

 

Datum
2015-12-14
Författare

SP Sverikges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut; Torsten Sjögren

Impact of light quality on biomass production and fatty acid composition in Chlorella vulgaris

In this work, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to monochromatic light at six different wavelengths in order to study the effect on biomass productivity and fatty acid content. A significantly higher amount of biomass by produced in the treatments with yellow, red and white light compared with blue, green and purple light. There were also significant differences in total lipid content and fatty acid profile between the treatments. The green light regime gave the lowest concentration of lipids, but increased the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus it can be concluded that light quality significantlty affects biomass productitivy, total lipid concentration and fatty acid profile in the microalga Chlorella vulgaris. Also dens biofilm formation and aggregated growth of cells were observed in treatments exposed to blue, purple and white light. Less dense biofilm formation and solitary growth of cells were observed in treatments exposed to red, yellow or green light. Microalgal biofilms are of high importance in many respects, not least from an economic perspective. The result of this work indicates that light quality plays a role in biofilm formation and that blue light receptors are most probably involves. 

Datum
2015-12-14
Författare

Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet; Malin Hultberg

Aggressive environment for concrete in composting and biogas plants require special protection measures

In collaboration with SP Technical Researach Institute of Sweden, manufacturers/contractors and plant owners, the Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute is conduting a Vinnova project concerning concrete protection in biological treatment plants. The purpose of the project is to develop a basis for how biological treatment plants should be designed with regard to protection coverings on concrete.

As collection volumes of food waste have increased around the country, also problems have occurred with the leachate, particularly from food waste, corroding the concrete in biogas and composting plants. These plants often have concrete floors, walls and ceilings that are quickly damaged due to the aggressive environment containing acidic leachate water in combination with high tempertures (up to 70C). Since 2009, three sub-projects have been carried out to find out why damages occur, what the possible solutions available on the market are and what kind of testing is needed to evaluate the relevant properties of different types of protective coating systems. Resistance to leachate and wear were focused on.

Field test application of two different coating systems was carried out at Tekniska verken in Linköping, for follow-up and evaluation.This report focuses on this  field test application which was carried out during one week in August 2015. 

 

Datum
2015-12-11
Författare

CBI Betonginstitutet; Ylva Edwards

Evaluation and optimization of filtering techniques in treatment plants to separate harmful nanoparticles

Silver nanoparticles are used more and more in consumer products, which has raised concerns of negative environmental effects due to possible toxicity of the dispersed silver. There are possible scenarios where silvernanoparticles are contributing to increased levels in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and aqueous setting. In addition, the active microorganisms in the WWTP in the sludge treatment could be distriburbed at high silver nanoparticle concentrations.

This project projects results from Hammarby Sjöstadsverk, a pilot scale wastewater treatment plant which includes an exact copy of the municipal wastewater treatment with an active sludge treatment. Measurements with added silver nanoparticles show that they accumulate in the bioreactors and in the sludge to a large extent (80-100%). Most likely this is a resultat of adsorption to sludge material and also dissolution and formation of silver sulfide. The silver nanoparticles therefor sediment into the sludge and also stay bound to there after anearobic digestion and de-watering of the sludge. Analogous experiments with silver ions showed similar results.

This show that the silvernanoparticles, after passing the WWTP do not behave as singly dispersed  particles in solution; they are more similar to the behaviour of added silver ions to the WWTP, with respect of sedidmentation. Therefor, studies on the nanoparticles further fate in e.g. soil is of interest when assessing risks of dispersed silver nanoparticles into the environment.

 

Datum
2013-10
Författare

IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet; Jonas Hedberg

Evaluation of uncertainty and variability in calculations of soil guideline values

The Swedish EPA (Naturvårdsverket) has published a model for the calculation of guideline values for contaminated soil. The model consists of sub-models that describe different exposure and transport pathways for a contaminant. The Swedish EPA uses a deterministic approach when calculating the guideline values, and in order to take uncertainty and variability of the variables in the model in consideration; they use conservative (worst case) assumptions. This approach is considered to generate soil guideline values that are safe with respect to risk to humans and to environment. In the case of a modelled scenario that differs from the "worst case", the risk might be overestimated and lead to elevated costs for remediation. There is also a risk of a false sense of security when using conserative asssumptions.

By assigning each variable a probability distribution and using a probabilistic approach when modelling, the resulting guideline value is assigned a probability distribution, which gives a measure of the uncertainty and the possibility of choosing a level of certainty for reach unique object.

In the study presented here, a probabilistic approach has been used with the Swedish EPA's model for soil guideline values and the sub-models for "protection of groundwater" and "intake of drinking water". New guideline values and the sub-models for "protection of groundwater" and "intake of drinking water". New guideline values have been calculated for the sub-models and a sensitivity analysis has been performed. A 2D-simulation has been performed where uncertainty and variability have been separated. The program that has been used is Crystal Ball® which is an add-in program to MS Excel. The probability distributions used in the study are based on experience from previous studies.

The results show that the guideline values calculated by the Swedish EPA's model, with a deterministic approach, generally overestimate the risk when comparing to the probabilistic guideline values at the 90th percentile. The sensitivity analysis shows that several variables have a high correlation coefficient with respect to the calculated guideline value and therefore contribute to the uncertainty of the resulting guideline value.

The probabilistic approach could be implemented in the Swedish EPA's model and the probability distribution for the calculated guideline value could be given as a choice. It could also be used to calculate the load of a contaminant from an area to a nearby recipient.

Datum
2012-12
Författare

ÅF-Infrastructure; Fredrik Stenemo

Ackumulering av metaller i vegetation på geotekniska askkonstruktioner

The results from this study indicates that aged MSWI bottom ash used mixed with planting soil (here 50 wt%>), e.g. in landfill cover purposes, do not give rise to significant elevated metal or metalloid levels in ryegrass during one growing season compared to conventional construction materials (here excavated soil and crushed stone). In addition, concentrations in leaves of shrubs and trees that self-established and grew in aged MSWI bottom ash where below tolerable daily intake for cattle (TDI) for cattle of all studieed metals and metalloids except Zn in aspen, birch and willow, In leaves from these trees the lefels of Zn were above that lower, but not upper, TDI value. The studyt also shows the importance of taking into account dusting and other particle spreading as an exposure route when evaluating the risks related to ash utilisation. Minimization of particle spreading should thus be an important component when designing risk mitigation measures if ashes are used in geotechnical constructions. Finally, the study also shows that the general accumulation factors used in Swedish Environmental Protection Agency Handbook 2010:1 would overestimate the plant uptake of all studied metals and metalloids except Cr from the studied ash materials to grass. These accumulation factors are thus not suitable when assessing risks related to ash utilization.

Datum
2012-01
Författare

Kristian Hemström
Torleif Bramryd
Ola Wik
Michael Johansson

Is it possible to utilize the land in the contaminated areas by growing energy ?

The Rejuvenate project was initiated by a desk study carried out by four organisations from the United Kingdom (UK), Sweden, the Netherlands and Germany. Its goal was to asssess the potential opportunity for using marginal land, in particular brownfields and other previously developed or contaminated land, for producing biomass. This biomass could be used for energy, fuel productiom or as a feedstock.  The aims of the first phase were (i) to explore the feasbility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic  matter re-use as appropriate, (ii) to identify a range of potential opportunities worthy of further development in the UK, Germany and Sweden and in a wider European context, (iii) to assess how verification of their performance might be carried out and (iv) to identify with requirements remain for future research, development and demonstration.

One practical result from the first phase of the Rejuvenate project was a decision-making framework (or decision support tool, DST) serviceable in Germany, Sweden and the UK. These countries have substantive differences in their land, and biomass re-use, contexts and the tool was aimed to be applicable across Europe.

A central task of the project during its second phase (Rejuvenate 2) has been to evaluate the decision support tool against different case studies. In addition the project consortium was broadened to include partners from Romania and Belgium and also co-operation with other research projects. The specific objectives of Rejuvenate 2 (R2) were designed to address the research and development gaps identified in the first phase of Rejuvenate by:

1. Establishing three full scale case studies in the participating countries.

2. Validating the decision support approach based on Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT) analysis, with regard to i) crop and site management and ii) biomass use and delivery of value to stakeholders.

3. Performing ecological environmental, legal and economical assessment of the crop based systems for sustainable RBLM, including the full chain from choice of fields to biomass use.

4. Identifying ongoing research, developments and experience of implementation agendas for the re-use of contaminated land for biofuels.

5. Providing a mechanism for other countries and third partry funders to add further case studies to the project over its three year life span.

This report provides a summary of findings against these objetives applying the Rejuvenate Decision Support Tool (DST) at demonstrations sites. This includes a SWOT-analysis and an example of applying the DST on radioactivce land.

The DST was applied to select demonstration sites and for selecting crops to be cultivated at the sites. In Sweden the sites Vivsta varv, in Vista, Utansjöverken in Utansjö and the Häggatorp landfill in Kallinge were selected. In Romania Micasasa, Copsa Mica was selected.

Datum
2011-12
Författare

Statens Geologiska Institut; Anja Enell

Characterisation of Particle Emissions from Marine Engines with Emphasis on Nanoparticles

Emissions of particulate matter have influences on both health and the environment, and contributing with almost the same amount of particles as road traffic. Emissions of particulate matter from shipping depend on fuel type, engine type and load. The project has made measurements of particulate emissions from marine engines. The fuels used are environmental class 1 diesel (MK1), diesel environmental class 3 (MK3) and a mixture of heavy fuel oil oil and MK1-diesel. The fuels have different content of sulfur, aromatics and PAH. Number of particles, mass and size distribution of particles vary with load and is different for each fuel type. MK1 and MK3-diesel result in a unimodal size distributions with one peak, while the mix of heavy oil and MK1-diesel result in a bimodal size distributoin with two peaks. The use of heavy fuel oil result in a larger number of small nanoparticles around 10 nm in diameter, while the amount of larger particles with diameter 50-80 nm is much the same as for the other two fuels. Both the total numbers of particles and the total mass of the particles have been measured. Emission of particulate matter was dominated, both in number and mass by nanoparticles. For fine particles emitted the majority of the particles were found in the range 0.3-0.8 µm. Also how aromatics content in the fuel affect emissions of particles, seen from the number of particles, mass and size distribution has been studied. This is done in order to gain further insight into how the fuel characterstics, except for the sulphur content, affect the particle emissions from shipping. The aromatics content seems to have a great importance for the emissions of particulate emissions. This has implications for future choices oif fuels and shows that parameters other than sulphur content are important to consider.

Datum
2011-12
Författare

Svenska Miljöinstitutet; Erik Fridell

Cost-effectiveness of measures against eutrophication - a case study in Gävle bays

There is an on-going debate whether remedial measures towards eutrophication in the Baltic Sea should focus entirely on reducing the nutrient load or if so-called ecological engineering also serve a purpose for reducing the effects of the long term nutrient enrichment.

In this study, the cost-efficiency and resource consumption of different remedial actions to mitigate eutrophication within the coastal zone of the Baltic Seas has been studied. A mass balance model was applied to establish the phosporus budget, including sediment-water interactions for one Baltic coastal area outside the city of Gävle. Thereafter, the potential and costs of reducing the phosphorus load from land based sources, i.ex. municipal sewage treatment plants and industries were calculated. The results were compared with estimates of costs ansd potentials to reduce phosphours concentration in the water by direct actions within the coastal area, e.g. oxygenation, aluminium treatment of sediments and depletion of cyprinidal fish stocks.

Furthermore, we used a simple application of life-cycle-analysis (LCA) to assess the potentially negative environmental impacts that also would follow ith the proposed remedial actions in terms sf carbon dioxiede emissions.

To achieve environmental conditions that could possibly meet the requirements of good ecological status according to the EU Water Framework Directive the phosphorus input needs to be reduced from approximately 45 to 30 tonnes per year. This can be reached through a combination of actions on reducing the nutrient load and direct measures within the coastal area. The total tcost would be around 60 MSEK per year. The probable ecological consequences would be a decreased production of plankton algae, increased Secchio depth, increased depth penetration of benthic algae and reduced stocks of pike-perch in favour of yellow perch and northern pike.

The cost-efficency varied between 400 and 10 000 SEK per kg reduced phosphorus. Improved phosphorus removal in the municapal sewage treatment plant was considered as the most cost-effective method. Both aluminium treatment of sediments and fish removal were fairly cost-effective methods whereas oxygenation was consered inappropriate. The main reason for that was that the bottom areas had already recovered from a previous period of hypoxia. The sediments are well oxidised and saturated with phosphorus,

The LCA showed that large CO2 emissions could be expected if chemical precipitation was chosen for tertiary effluent treatment at a pulp mill discharing into the costal area whereas fish removal potentially can reduce CO2 emissions if the catch is used for biogas production.

To conclude, the results from the study indicate that the pros and cons of various mitigating actions need to be considered carefully before decisions are taken on future remediating programs.

Datum
2011-12
Författare

IVL; Magnus Karlsson

Development a high-throughput in vitro system to detect biological effects of exposure to nanoparticles

Nanosafety is focused on investigating the key elements that could provide the essential and sufficient information to provide safety for people and the environment. One of those key elements is the understanding of a correlation between the physico-chemical properties and their possible effects of exposure. The potential between the physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles and their possible effects of exposure. The potential hazard of individual nanoparticles and nanomaterials may vary enormously. The toxicological analysis based on the classical dose-response is not any longer valid when the chemical nature of nanoparticles is just one of its multiple properties. Thus, nanotoxicology is adapting in two directions: exploring methodologies that could define early warning signals of the impact of exposure to novel engineerred nanoparticles or developing high-througput methodologies that could offer a precise assessment with prediction capabilites. This funded projects has achieved solutions to detect the effect of exposure to nanoparticles combining classical toxicology with the state-of-art of mass spectrometry. We have developed mass spectromettry based methods that could build a bridge to travel the key features of nanoimpact on biological fluids or cell content and provide a framevork to evaluate the impact of any future nanotechnological innovations. The results emphasize that the toxic behavior of the nanoparticles were dependent on the nanoparticle coating and dosage, environment and cell type. Therefore the integration of the relevant nanoimpact responses is a shortcut strategy that could reveal early warning signals of nanoimpact of any new synthezised nanomaterial. This project demonstrated that environmental proteomics would become: i) the pivotal methodology to assess any early environmental and health risk, ii) a key instrument for regulators, iii) reference for prediciting the effects of pollution and the study f mechanism of response tio environmental stressors.

Datum
2011-12
Författare

Linköpings Universitet; Susana Cristobal

Lätt att göra rätt, beslutsunderlag för miljöprövning av askor i anläggningar

This report presents the needs and concerns of the environmental assessment authorities and operators in terms of screening of the ashes of plants.
The findings show an efficient and legally secure screening of ash in plants requires a greater clarity on the regulatory requirements, an increased quality of operators' base, and a common vision for content owners, operators and environmental review agencies.

Datum
2011-02
Författare

Susanna Toller
Mats Johansson
Ola Wik
Åsa Erlandssson
Kristina Lundberg

Ethanol production from biomass of marine microalgae with yeast

Maarine microalgae with high content of carbohydrates could be provided as substrate for bioethanol production with yeast, after hydrolysis of the algal biomass to release fermentable sugars. In this project, we have worked on to identify some candidates of high carbohydtated containing marine microalgae for such application. Several species was selected for initial screening of the carbohydrate content. Some species of Rhinomonas, Rhodomonas, Porphyridium and Tetraselmis showed the best potential regarding content and growth rate. These species were investigated in the next step how nutrient variation, nitrogen and phosphorous, affected the carbohydratre content. The availability of nitrogen showed the largest influence on the species investigated and especially Tetraselmis strain TA accumulated carbohydrates at nitrogen excess. In the full cell suspension 0.33 g/l carbohydrates were found as compared to 0.23 g/l for Rhinomonas reticulata and Porphyridium curentum. Some different extraction methods were evaluated to obatain proper hydrolysis and release the fermentable sugars. Biomass of Tetraselmis coul efficiently be hydrolysed with dilute acid at 3% and heat treatment at 120C for 1-1.5 hours. The monosaccharides, mainly glucose and to a lesser extent galactose, were released without formation of inhibitors, Fermentation with yeast of the hydrolysate was efficient and ethanol was produced with a yield of 0.41 g/g consumed sugars (0.81% of the theoretical yeld).

Datum
2010-12
Författare

Chalmers; Eva Albers

Effekter av ytterligare reningssteg vid skogsindustrier

This study considers application of tertiary treatment of effluent water in two Swedish pulp mills in a holistic perspective. Calculations of improved waste water quality and costs for membrane filtration, chemical treatment (precipitation) and sand filtration have been performed. The results differ considerably between the two plants as well as between treatment methods. Generally, nutrient discharges decrease more with chemical treatment than in other methods, while suspended solids are more effectively removed with filtration. Sand filtration is less expensive to install and operate than the other two methods.
The recipient to one of the mills is a large lake in central Sweden, while the other mill is located in a coastal area by the Bothnian Bay. Both recipients exhibit fairly good ecological status and the amounts of organic material and nutrients discharged by the mills are small compared to background loads. Simulations show no significant effects in the recipients of tertiary treatment of the pulp mill effluents. On the positive side, however, is the prospect of decreasing the totalt load on the environment of some substances. Against this should be considered the environmental effects of building and operating the treatment plants.
Our analysis of the combined environmental effects of the different treatment methods show that the total nutrient emissions decrease in all cases. In all other categories the environmental impact increases due to i.a. increased consumption of energy and chemicals during building and operating the treatment plants and due to increased sludge production. There is no established way of comparing different categories of environmental impact, but we have applied different methods to assess and normalize different environmental impacts. Numerical results from the different categories can be normalized against total emissions per year and per peson in a certain categories. This gives an indication about how much of the "available space" in a sustainable society that is consumed by the impact. The monetary value of increased CO2 emissions can also be estimated using abatement costs in other instances of using the price in emissions trading markets. In similar ways the monetary value of decreased nutrient emissions can be assessed and compared against the increased climate impact from the treatment plants.
In summary the results indicate that the environmental benefit of tertiary treatment in the pulp mills is ambiguous in a holistic perspective. None of the methods to compare different impact categories in this study definitely answers the question whether the benefit exceeds the costs. One reason for this is that primary and secondary treatment of the effluent waters are already installed in the mills and the present environmental impact is limited. There is also lack of data concerning the effect on potentially toxic substances by the tertiary treatment, which is a significant gap in the environmental balance account.

Datum
2010-08-13
Författare

Mikael Malmaeus
Mats Almemark
Magnus Karlsson
Olle Simon
Åsa Sivard
Tomas Ericsson

Övervakning av urlakning från bränningsrestprodukter

Incineration of municipal solid waste has resulted in large quantities of residues which can be recycled in roads and landfill covers provided the environmental concerns related to leaching of salts and metals can be mitigated. The pollutant transport from these residues depends on quantify and variability of moisture at re-use sites. For realistic assessment of leaching rates and pollutant transport risks quantifying the moisture variability is important. Rapid and non-destructive measurement techniques are therefore necessary. The commonly available techniques (e.g. TDR, Time Domain Reflectometry) are not suitable due to high conductivity of waste materials. Even at moderate salinity levels the attenuation of TDR signal drastically  lowers its ability to determine the water content. The other alternative is to use dielectric measurements in frequency domain (FDR) which was used in the present project. A large amount of data was collected in several different ash materials over a wide range in water content (0-0.49 m3m3-) and electrical conductivities (0-20 dS m1-). Both TDR and FDR measurements were taken.
The result demonstrate that the FDR measurements are less affected by salinity than TDR which reduces the effective frequency as salinity level increases. This results in over estimation of the water content. The FDR measurements were converted to water content using both an empirical approcah and dielectric relaxation modelling. Results show that the FDR technique can give highly accurate water content measurements over a wide range of salinity levels. 

Datum
2010-05-11
Författare

Magnus Persson

Validating a lab prototype for cleaning sea water from H2S in a basin of 10 m3

This report presents lab testing results from a water cleaning device that may have a future role for the marine environmental to reduce the amount of dead sea bottoms in coastal areas. This problem is due to lack of water circulation and an excess of nutrients that still cause eutrophication, a high sedimentation rate and the sulfur cycle itself. The fish productivity may recover in the Baltic and fiords again if the bottom water returns from anoxic to oxic state again. To solve the eutrophication in the Baltic is one of the EU strategies before 2021.
The technical advantages from this device that clean the sea water from toxic H2S by no consumption of energy or toxic substances and the construction is made by sustainable material and with a simplicity that make it possible to enlarge the device to a big scale. Other techniques that can be complementary solutions. Prevention of emission (nutrients mainly) is also still important to prevent eutrophication but the problem has not been solved yet and the majority of the amount of phosphate is stored in the bottom sediment due to the phosphorous biogeochemical cycle.
During this validation test the lab scale prototype was tested in a 10m3 basin for cleaning toxic H2S from sea water by oxidation to harmless sulfate. The focus in this report is to quantify cleaning time and cleaning capacity (% of start H2S concentration) during  four separate experiments. This construction has got a "battery like" principle for the water cleaning. During discharging this "battery" the H2S get oxidized back to sulfate again (like in the oxic water state). To verify the cleaning time the electrode potential (mV) has been logged and water samples for analyzing concentration of H2S have been taken. During two experiment the cleaning capacity of 100% was reached. Different cleaning times has noticed from 15 minutes, 1 hour to 1 day - using different size of electrodes etc. Water samples were also taken to check the biological impact before and after cleaning (pH, alkalinity, salinity, nutrients and oxygen etc). No negative biological impact is shown because the values are close to detection limits mainly and no toxic products were expected.

Datum
2010-03-30
Författare

Britt-Marie Widheden

Karakterisering av det oförbrända kolet i askor

Unburned carbon in combustion residues from biomass and wastes has been characterized using micro-Raman spectroscopy. These residues have been characterized with respect to LOI and TOC in previous investigations. The results have been evaluated using the height ratio ID/IG  between the two carbon peaks, disordered carbon (D) and graphitic carbon (G).
The samples appear to group themselves in three categories: bottom ashes with the lowest 
ID/IG   ratio, fly ashes and APC residues with a  ID/IG  ratio of approximately 1.5 and residues from smaller furnaces using wood pellets as fuel with the largest ID/IG   ratio. This methods is recommended for use in investigations of unburned carbon in ash, as a complement to methods based on the reactivity of the carbon and the ash.

Datum
2010-02-25
Författare

Henrik Bjurström
Jakob Thyr
Lars Hälldahl

Anthropogenic and natural analogues for the development over time of mixtures of wood-based ash and acitivated sewage sludge

There are considerable incentives in Sweden - from environmental, conservation and economic points of view - to utilize ash and activated sewage sludge in covers for landfills. The Tveta Recycling Plant thus uses mixtures of these residues in the protecing layer and ash in the seal. Others, however, use mixtures of ash and sewage sludge for the latter, and this has prompted questions as to whether the Tveta recycling Plant is actually complying with the requirements on best available technology. Times of hundres and thousands of years are not accessible to ordinary  experiements. Therefore, aleration of organic material over time has been studied in to historical sources (anthropogenic analogue) and in marine sediments according to moderns sources (natural analogue). For the case of the Tveta Recycling Plant, neither alkalinity nor salinity was identified to protect a seal of ash and activaded sewage sludge in the long term, and results on availability of oxygen were inconsluvie. The antropogenic analogues of Roman cements and similar supports the selection of solely ash as the best alternative for the seal.

Datum
2009-05
Författare

R Sjöblom
G Tham

CFD-based design of natural smoke ventilation - Simulating the effect of external wind

Although there are few occasions during a year that the wind is calm, calculations on smoke ventilation rarely, or never, consider its effects. The wind creates a pressure on the surrounding walls of a building and can affect the internal air movements through leakages or openings in the facade. This project concern wind effects on natural smoke ventilation and the possibilities to make predictions using CFD applications of different complexity.
Although using fairly rough computational grids, all the programs show good predictions of wind pressure on the sides of a building. The separation effect on the building roof is more complex and therefore more difficult to predict. In order to follow good practice, the mesh should be fine enough to include the boundary layer (small y+). However, in several calculations it was shown that good, mesh independent, results could be obtained using large grids withouth resolving the boundary layer. This is important since it opens up for industrial size calculations.
The applications found in the open-source package OpenFOAM did not excel in simulation of fire and buoyancy driven flows and cannot be recommended in design calculations. The RANS-based code Sofie as well as the LES-based code FDS are both recommended for such exercises.

Datum
2009
Författare

Jörgen Carlsson

Bidrag beviljades för att köpa in utrustning för att provta flygaska i förbränningsanläggningar

Money was funded to Lisa Lundin, Department of Chemistry, Umeå University to buy equipment to sample fly ash from the flue gas in combustion plants. An APEX Instrument cyclone PM10, PM2.5 kit was purchased with a source sampling kit following the USEPA Method 5. This equipment allows simultaneously sampling of PM10 and PM2.5. The cyclones were used to sample fly ash before a textile filter in a combustion plant in Sweden which has trouble with PCDD/F in flue gases that are released to the air after a modification of the plant. The results show that formation of PCDD/F occurs in the textile filter. The contribution of the PCDD increased when comparing ashes taken before the textile filter and ash from the filter. However, the contribution of PCDD and PCDF to the WHO-TEQ is approximately the same in the ashes it suggests that other PCDD congeners than the 2,3,7,8 substituted are formed in the textile filter. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the reason for the formation of PCDD/F in the textile filter.

Datum
2008-04-14
Författare

Lisa Lundin

Modellutveckling för flödesstruktur i flotationsprocessen

Model development for the flow structure in the flotation process

Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) is a process for the separation of minute floc/particles in water and wastewater treatment. The method is based on the use of microscopic air bubbles which should attach to the floc and lift it to the water surface for subsequent removal. The flow structure in the flotation tank is of utmost importance to the separation efficiency and previous experimental studies had indicated the importance of the density effects of the bubbles on the flow structure. The project has investigated the possibility to simulate, at least in a qualitative way, the important features of the flow pattern in a DAF pilot plant tank using numerical flow models based on Navier-Stokes' equations and a continuity equation for the bubble distribution and contents. A two-dimensional, laminar approach was used. Two different cases were tested. The first one dealt with the situation without bubbles and it was possible to simulate the occurrence of the large scale eddy which occurred according to measurements of the flow structure. The second case dealt with the addition of bubbles of a fixed size and an assumption of the validity of the Boussinesq approximation on the effect of bubbles on the bulk water density. Initial computations indicated that a stratified flow structure could be obtained. However, numerical stability problems occurred which limited the use of realistic, low viscosity values. Further efforts are required in order to minimize stability problems as well as to use simultaneously a range of bubble sizes.

Datum
2008-04-14
Författare

Lennart Jönsson

Instrument för snabba mätningar av organiska ämnen i rökgaser

Modern mass spectrometers that can be used on-line to monitor emissions of gaseous organic pollutants offer the possibility to investigate in more detail their occurrence in flue gases. This information is needed for the development of means to abate these emissions.
The REMPI-TOF mass spectrometer at GSF in Germany has been modified in order to:
o Increase the selectivity of the instrument for PAH compounds
o Shorten the interval between two samplings to lower than a minute, while keeping the sensitivity to PAH at the ppb level
The instrument has then been used in a research project financed by Värmeforsk (The Swedish Thermal Engineering Research Institute) where the relation between PAH and carbon monoxide concentrations was studied. The impact of sulphur additives was the main topic of this project. The performance of the mass spectrometer fulfilled all expectations.

Datum
2008-03-04
Författare

Henrik Bjurström

The effects of nanoparticles on human lung cells – development of an integrated system for particle generation and cell exposure

Studies suggest that airborne particles cause health effects at concentrations normally found in cities. In a recent study our research group showed that particles generated by combustion of pellets damage the gene pool in cultivated human lung cells in the same degree as particles generated by combustion of wood in an old non-environmentally approved steam boiler. In order to further develop steam boilers and fuels, more knowledge about particles that are dangerous to human health is needed. In recent years, nanoparticles have been in focus since they are suspected to be particularly harmful to human health. In order to examine these particles, without exposing humans or animals, new types of test systems are required. We are currently developing an integrated system (a so called CULTEX system) for nanoparticles and cell exposure. The principle of the CULTEX system is that cells are cultivated on a specific membrane, where the cells get nourishment from cell media beneath the membrane and are exposed to a freshly generated particle aerosol from above. The CULTEX system is a new method set up at the Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at the Karolinska Institutet financially supported by AF’s (Ångpanneföreningens) Foundation for Research and Development. The CULTEX system is up and running and are currently being optimised for nanoparticles. Future applications of the CULTEX system are to evaluate the toxicity of nanoparticles with different chemical compositions. In addition, it will be possible to evaluate the importance of particle size for the toxicity. Such information will help the industry to develop better steam boilers, particle filters etc.

Datum
2007-12
Författare

Lennart Möller

PROJECT ON UNDERGROUND DISPOSAL OF TOXIC CHEMICAL WASTE LIKE MERCURY BATTERIES

The overall objective of the project was to find out if toxic, non-radioactive chemical waste can be safely stored underground with due respect to: 1) present EC safety regulations and possible future stricter rules for environmental protection, 2) technical feasibility, and 3) cost efficiency. These goals were reached and the worked-out concept for isolating hazardous waste is available for practical application. Deep abandoned mines appear to be suitable for the disposal because of low cost and suitable chemical conditions. A major issue has been to develop techniques for isolation of hazardous waste, primarily mercury, in solid or solidified form, for which a couple of techniques have been identified and tested. The best isolating medium turns out to be dense clay material applied in the form of pre-compacted blocks of clay powder or as on-site compacted clay layers. The project has involved lab experiments and theoretical modelling for assessing the performance of clay components as engineered barriers. Solidification of liquid waste is needed and a suitable clay type for this purpose has been identified. The techniques for preparation and application of the clay-based materials have been tested and found to be very effective as “near-field” isolation of solid waste represented by mercury batteries. The overall conclusion is that such waste and other solidified hazardous waste can be isolated from the biosphere for hundreds of thousands of years and that subsequent groundwater contamination will be lower than stipulated by the EU. The study has included, in addition to the major issue of isolating waste, estimation of the rock mechanical stability of drifts and rooms suitable for disposal of such waste. The major scientific achievements are 1) Selection principles of data for release of toxic inorganic and organic elements from clay-embedded solid and solidified liquid waste. 2) Understanding of the mechanisms of diffusive transport of toxic elements through clay embedment to the rock surrounding underground disposal rooms, and ways of modelling them, 3) Development of numerical tools for calculating long-term mechanical stability of disposal rooms and examples of applying them, and 4) Validation of numerical tools for calculating transport of toxic contaminants in large rock masses using relevant rock structure systems. Lund 2007-12-03 Roland Pusch Geodevelopment International AB

Datum
2007-05-18
Författare

Roland Pusch